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Cross Cultural Issues
A curious developmental phenomenon is occurring in Japan as a result of the stagnant economic conditions that have been present there since the early 1990’s:  the emergence of a new group of young adults, mostly men, who have given up going to school or working at a job and have instead chosen to spend virtually...
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The concept of rites of passage was first articulated by anthropologist Arnold van Gennep (1873-1957) in his book The Rites of Passage, first published in 1908.   In this seminal work, van Gennep subdivided rites of passage into three sub-categories:  rites of separation, transition rites, and rites of incorporation.  These rites might represent components of one...
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At five years old a person should study the Scriptures at ten years for the Mishnah, at thirteen for the commandments, at fifteen for the Talmud, at eighteen for the bridechamber, at twenty for one’s life pursuit, at thirty for authority, at forty for discernment, at fifty for counsel, at sixty to be an elder,...
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The Tibetan Book of the Dead or Bardo Thodol provides a map of the stages of life, which in this case, occurs not in a straight line but in a circle: The Chi-Kha Bardo – this state occurs at the moment of death, when the dying person has the potential to perceive The Clear Light...
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According to the ancient Hindu Laws of Manu, there are four stages or “ashramas” of life, each lasting 21 (or 25) years. The first stage – 0-21 (0-25)  years – Brahmacharya/Student – the person lives as a unmarried celibate, studies with a guru; the focus is on education, character development, development of skills The second...
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